Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder & OCD

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) goes beyond mere perfectionism, yet its intricacies often remain misunderstood. Unlike Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), which focuses on intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors, OCPD centers around an unyielding need for control, order, and strict adherence to rules. In this article, we explore the key characteristics and challenges of OCPD, aiming to foster understanding and empathy for those navigating this complex personality disorder.

By We Level Up WA | Editor Yamilla Francese | Clinically Reviewed By Lauren Barry, LMFT, MCAP, QS, Director of Quality Assurance | Editorial Policy | Research Policy | Last Updated: May 22, 2023

What Is OCD or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or OCD, is a mental health condition characterized by a pattern of unwanted and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges, known as obsessions, and repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed in response to these obsessions, known as compulsions. People with OCD might feel they have no control over their thoughts, causing anxiety, fear, or distress.

They feel compelled to perform certain rituals or behaviors repeatedly to reduce their anxiety or address their fears, despite these actions providing temporary relief at best. OCD can range in severity and significantly interfere with daily activities, work, and relationships. OCD is a treatable condition, and therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, and support can help affected individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Is There a Difference Between The OCD Meaning and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?

There is a notable distinction between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). While they share similarities regarding the presence of obsessions and compulsions, they represent two distinct disorders (OCD Vs OCPD).

OCD is a clinical anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental rituals (compulsions) performed to alleviate anxiety. People with OCD often recognize their thoughts and behaviors as excessive or irrational but feel compelled to engage.

On the other hand, OCPD is a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of perfectionism, rigidity, and a preoccupation with rules, order, and control. Individuals with OCPD tend to be excessively devoted to work, adhere strictly to their moral and ethical standards, and often struggle with flexibility and openness.

In summary, OCD is an anxiety disorder marked by intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors. At the same time, OCPD is a personality disorder characterized by perfectionism and an inflexible need for control and order. Although they may share similarities, they are distinct conditions with different diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches.

Is OCD Genetic?

Yes, there is evidence to suggest that Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has a genetic component. Research indicates that genetic factors play a role in the development of OCD, although the exact genes involved are still being studied. Having a family history of OCD increases the likelihood of developing the disorder, but environmental and other factors also contribute to its onset.

OCD Symptoms & Signs Of OCD

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions and compulsions. Here are some common symptoms associated with OCD:

  • Obsessions are intrusive and unwanted thoughts, urges, or images that cause distress. Examples include fear of contamination, concerns about symmetry or order, taboo or aggressive thoughts, and excessive doubts about safety or harm.
  • Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD feel compelled to perform in response to their obsessions. Compulsions are often aimed at reducing anxiety or preventing a feared event. Examples include excessive cleaning or handwashing, checking rituals, arranging or organizing objects in a specific manner, mental counting or repeating phrases, and seeking reassurance.
  • Anxiety and Distress: OCD can lead to intense anxiety and distress when obsessions occur, and compulsions may temporarily relieve this anxiety. However, the short-lived relief leads to a cycle of repetitive behaviors.
  • Time-consuming and Interfering: OCD symptoms can consume a significant amount of time and interfere with daily activities, relationships, and overall functioning. They can also cause significant distress and impairment in various areas of life.
  • Resistance and Recognition: Many individuals with OCD recognize that their obsessions and compulsions are excessive or irrational, but they find it challenging to resist the urge to engage in them.

It’s important to note that OCD symptoms can vary widely among individuals, and not everyone with OCD experiences the same obsessions or compulsions. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms suggestive of OCD, seeking a professional evaluation for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is recommended.

OCD Facts

OCD Overview

Obsessions with excessive ideas trigger recurrent behaviors (compulsions). Unreasonable worries and obsessions (compulsive behaviors) are hallmarks of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
OCD frequently centers on ideas like a dread of germs or the requirement to organize objects in a certain way. Symptoms typically appear gradually and change over time. Both conversation therapy and medication are used as treatments.

OCD Symptoms

  • Behavioral: compulsive behavior, agitation, compulsive hoarding, hypervigilance, impulsivity, meaningless repetition of own words, repetitive movements, ritualistic behavior, social isolation, or persistent repetition of words or actions.
  • Mood: anxiety, apprehension, guilt, or panic attack.
  • Whole body: fatigue or sweating.
  • Also common: food aversion, nightmares, or rumination.

OCD Treatments

  • Support group: A place where those pursuing the same disease or objective, such as weight loss or depression, can receive counseling and exchange experiences.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy: A conversation treatment that aims to change the negative attitudes, actions, and feelings connected to psychiatric discomfort.
  • Counseling psychology: A subfield of psychology that handles issues with the self that are connected to work, school, family, and social life.
  • Anger management: To reduce destructive emotional outbursts, practice mindfulness, coping skills, and trigger avoidance.
  • Psychoeducation: Mental health education that also helps individuals feel supported, validated, and empowered
  • Family therapy: psychological counseling that improves family communication and conflict resolution.

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OCD Statistics

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, or OCD, is a term that is frequently used in casual conversation. For those who have obtained a clinical diagnosis, OCD is frequently perceived as an unusual trait rather than a severe mental health difficulty. It is frequently used to characterize picky behavior or is mildly neurotic in the public eye.

2.5 million

OCD affects 2.5 million adults, or 1.2% of the U.S. population.

Source: National Institute on Mental Health


Women are 3x more likely to be affected than men.

Source: ADAA


The average age of onset is 19, with 25% of cases occurring by age 14. One-third of affected adults first experienced symptoms in childhood.

Source: ADAA

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Types Of OCD

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can manifest in various forms, with different types of obsessions and compulsions. Here are some common types of OCD:

  1. Contamination Obsessions and Cleaning Compulsions: Individuals may have an intense fear of germs, dirt, or contaminants. They may engage in excessive cleaning, handwashing, or avoidance of perceived contaminated objects or environments.
  2. Checking Obsessions and Compulsions: involves persistent doubts and fears of harm or danger. Individuals may repeatedly check locks, appliances, or personal belongings to ensure safety or prevent accidents.
  3. Symmetry and Ordering Obsessions and Compulsions: People with this type of OCD have an overwhelming need for symmetry, exactness, or perfect alignment. They may spend excessive time arranging objects, counting, or repeating specific actions to achieve balance.
  4. Intrusive Thoughts and Mental Rituals: These obsessions involve distressing, intrusive thoughts or mental images that go against personal values or beliefs. Individuals may perform mental rituals, such as silently repeating prayers or phrases, to neutralize or counteract intrusive thoughts.
  5. Hoarding Obsessions and Compulsions: Hoarding OCD involves an excessive accumulation of items, even those with little or no value. Individuals may have difficulty discarding possessions, resulting in cluttered living spaces and significant distress.
  6. Just Right Obsessions and Compulsions: Individuals with this type of OCD experience an intense need for things to feel “just right” or in perfect order. They may repetitively perform actions until they achieve a sense of “rightness” or avoid situations that trigger discomfort.

It’s important to note that these types are not mutually exclusive, and individuals with OCD may experience a combination of different obsessions and compulsions. Treatment for OCD typically involves a combination of therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), to manage symptoms effectively.

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of perfectionism, rigidity, and a preoccupation with rules, order, and control.
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of perfectionism, rigidity, and preoccupation with rules, order, and control.

Relationship OCD

Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (ROCD) is a specific subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) that focuses on doubts and uncertainties about romantic relationships. Individuals with ROCD experience intrusive and distressing thoughts about their partner or relationship, leading to extreme anxiety and preoccupation.

They may constantly question their feelings, compatibility, or their partner’s faithfulness. These obsessive thoughts often lead to compulsive behaviors like seeking reassurance, analyzing the relationship excessively, or constantly testing their feelings. ROCD can significantly impact the quality of relationships and overall well-being. Treatment for ROCD typically involves therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals challenge and modify their obsessive thoughts and develop healthier coping strategies.

Harm OCD

Harm Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Harm OCD) is a specific subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts related to causing harm to oneself or others. Individuals with Harm OCD experience intense anxiety and fear that they may act on these thoughts, even though they have no desire or intention.

They may engage in compulsive behaviors to prevent harm, such as avoiding certain objects or situations, seeking reassurance, or performing mental rituals to neutralize their fears. Treatment for Harm OCD typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and, in some cases, medication to help individuals manage their anxiety, challenge their obsessive thoughts, and develop healthier coping mechanisms.

Obsession Vs Compulsion

Obsessions and compulsions are two different components of OCD. Obsessions are intrusive, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, or impulses that recur repeatedly and trigger anxiety. These obsessions can be focused on various topics, such as contamination, harm, symmetry or order, taboo thoughts, and religious or moral concerns, to name a few. Obsessions typically lead people with OCD to feel anxious and distressed and often prompt compulsive or ritualistic behaviors.

Conversely, compulsions are repetitive and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD feel compelled to perform to reduce the distress caused by obsessions. Compulsions can include excessive cleaning, checking, organizing, or counting, or mental acts like repeating phrases or prayers, or excessive mental review. These compulsions can temporarily relieve obsessive thoughts but often lead to further anxiety and can significantly disrupt daily life.

Both obsessions and compulsions can be difficult for individuals with OCD to control, and they can interfere with daily life and cause immense distress. Effective treatments for OCD typically address both obsessions and compulsions, often through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, and other supportive therapies.

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OCD Treatments

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can be effectively managed with various treatment approaches, including:

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is a widely recommended and evidence-based treatment for OCD. It involves identifying and challenging negative thought patterns, learning to tolerate anxiety, and gradually exposing oneself to feared situations or thoughts without engaging in compulsions.
  • Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP): ERP is a specific type of CBT that focuses on exposing individuals to their obsessions and preventing the associated compulsive behaviors. Through repeated exposure to anxiety-provoking situations and resisting the urge to perform rituals, individuals learn that their anxiety decreases naturally over time.
CBT is a widely recommended and evidence-based treatment for OCD.
CBT is a widely recommended and evidence-based treatment for OCD.
  • Medication: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), a type of antidepressant, are commonly prescribed to manage OCD symptoms. These medications can help regulate brain chemistry and reduce anxiety, but a qualified healthcare professional should prescribe and monitor them.
  • Combination Therapy: In some cases, therapy and medication may be recommended for optimal symptom management. This approach can be tailored to an individual’s specific needs and preferences.
  • Support Groups: Joining support groups or engaging in therapy with others with OCD can provide valuable support, encouragement, and a sense of community.

It is crucial to consult with a mental health professional to determine the most suitable treatment plan for your specific situation. Treatment for OCD is highly individualized, and the goal is to reduce symptoms, improve daily functioning, and enhance overall quality of life.

Medication can be an effective component of treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
Medication can be an effective component of treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

OCD Medication

Medication can be an effective component of treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The most commonly prescribed medications for OCD are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Examples of SSRIs used to treat OCD include:

  1. Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  2. Sertraline (Zoloft)
  3. Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
  4. Paroxetine (Paxil)
  5. Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  6. Citalopram (Celexa)

These medications increase serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood and anxiety. It is important to note that medication should be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a psychiatrist or primary care doctor, who can assess your needs and adjust the dosage as necessary.

Medication alone may not be sufficient for managing OCD symptoms, and it is often recommended in conjunction with therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or exposure and response prevention (ERP), for optimal results. Combining medication and therapy can provide a comprehensive approach to managing OCD symptoms and improving overall functioning.

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  1. Can an OCD Test Diagnose OCD?

    While online tests or self-assessment tools can provide some insight, they cannot diagnose Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) definitively. A formal diagnosis requires a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, who will consider your symptoms, medical history, and other relevant factors.

  2. Do I Have OCD?

    Consulting with a mental health professional for an accurate diagnosis is important. If you are experiencing persistent distressing thoughts or engaging in repetitive behaviors that significantly interfere with your daily life, it is advisable to seek professional help. A qualified clinician can evaluate your symptoms and determine if you meet the diagnostic criteria for OCD.

  3. What Causes OCD?

    The exact causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are not fully understood. It will likely result from genetic, neurobiological, and environmental factors. Research suggests that imbalances in certain brain chemicals and abnormalities in brain circuitry play a role. Stressful life events and a family history of OCD can also contribute to its development.

  4. What Does OCD Mean?

    OCD stands for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. It is a mental health condition characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts, urges, or images) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts). Individuals with OCD experience distress and anxiety, often engaging in rituals or repetitive actions to alleviate their obsessions.

  5. What are OCD Intrusive Thoughts?

    OCD intrusive thoughts are distressing and unwanted thoughts, images, or urges repeatedly intrude upon a person’s mind. These thoughts can be violent, taboo, or contradictory to a person’s values. They often cause significant anxiety and distress, leading individuals to engage in compulsive behaviors to reduce anxiety or prevent the feared consequences of these thoughts.

  6. Is OCD An Anxiety Disorder?

    Yes, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder. It is characterized by the presence of persistent and distressing obsessions and compulsions that are driven by anxiety. Individuals with OCD often experience intense anxiety and fear related to their obsessions and engage in compulsive behaviors to reduce or alleviate that anxiety.

Learn About What Is OCD & Take a look at the 4 Most Common Types of OCD Video

Video Script

There are several categories of OCD, but these 4 types of OCD are the more commonly seen:

Troubling Thoughts
Not all forms of OCD involve obsessive actions. In some cases, OCD primarily consists of intrusive thoughts that interfere with daily life. In this case, these thoughts tend to be more forbidden, about disturbing or uncomfortable topics that cause distress. This form of OCD manifests as:

Intrusive thoughts that are damaging or upsetting.
The shame surrounding troubling thoughts.
Fear of acting on inappropriate thoughts.
Feelings of responsibility for harmful actions.
Fear of harming others, either intentionally or unintentionally.
An ongoing need for reassurance of being a good or worthy person.
Rituals are designed to expel or avoid negative thoughts.
Contamination and Cleaning
A fear of things that might be dirty or a compulsion to clean involves feelings of discomfort associated with contamination.

An obsession with cleanliness, both physical and mental
Fear of disease and biological materials
Avoidance of germ-ridden areas, like bathrooms and medical facilities
Ongoing cleaning of the body, clothing, and physical areas
Washing or cleaning rituals, often related to showering or hand washing
Ordering and Symmetry
The need to have things lined up, organized, or symmetric in a certain way. It can also involve thinking or repeating sentences or tasks completed perfectly.

A compulsive need to organize things in a particular way
An obsession with symmetry using criteria like size or color
Counting of objects, sometimes repetitively
Rituals surrounding organizing objects
Panic or anxiety when things aren’t correctly organized
Persistent, repeated, unwanted thoughts
Involves extreme feelings or worry that you’ll harm yourself or others. To relieve your distress, you might use what’s known as checking rituals.

A compulsive need to check alarm systems, locks, ovens, or light switches
Thinking you have a medical condition like pregnancy or schizophrenia
Persistent fear of harming others or yourself.

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Search We Level Up WA / Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder & Resources
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